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Another issue that should be considered is the fact that exotic animals may be the carriers of unknown infectious diseases

People, who keep exotic pets in the place of keeping the more common cats, dogs, and small cage mammals, should take into account the peculiar features of these animals.  Wild animals always remain wild, despite the fact of their domestication. They are completely different from cats and dogs, therefore the most important fact is that they are not afraid of people. Moreover, such pets do not perceive them as masters. The situation with dogs and cats is completely different, as human home replaces the whole world for them. Unfortunately, an exotic animal feels uncomfortable in human home. Therefore, keeping an undomesticated animal in captivity is not always in the best interest of the animal. Exotic animals, besides being unusual, require special care and diet. What is more, removing them from their natural habitat may place people at health risk. Moreover, many of exotic animals are dangerous, and people should try to understand the in-patient needs that are characteristic to each exotic animal. For example, Bengals resemble cats as they like playing and enjoy human attention. However, they cannot be placed on laps. When people spend much time with this animal, it starts feeling boredom towards them, if the cat feels boredom, it can trouble a lot. Another example is a bobcat. This animal is friendly with people whom it is familiar with. However, it becomes anxious when gusts drop. Owners of this animal will not have the possibility to go out for long vacations or even party on weekdays because they just cannot leave this animal alone. If a babysitter is appointed, attention must be paid to the fact that it should not be a stranger to the animal, but a friend whom this pet is familiar with. These factors may cause difficulties for the owners. Bear cubs produce much urine, and owners should be ready for that.  Different species of animals have different habits, which may cause many problems for their owners.

Moreover, one should take into account that people who adopt exotic animals often lack an understanding of how big the animal will grow or how much it will eat. Valerie Tynes (2013) in her work Behavior of Exotic Pets emphasizes that those exotic pets owners must consider the biological requirements and needs of their pets (128). Exotic pets’ owners must pay attention to the food due to their pandas, tigers and chimpanzees. It should be bought in specialized stores. Human habitat does not fit for the exotic animals, and for that reason, people should think about special mini aviaries and aquariums due to their pets.

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Another issue that should be considered is the fact that exotic animals may be the carriers of unknown infectious diseases. There exists a high risk that keeping an exotic animal may result in serious diseases and infections, even in case of its good behavior.

Domestication of wild animals often turns out to cause significant difficulties for animals. These unfortunate creatures are often caught in the wild habitat, that will be their home, and after this disastrous experience, they should outlive the transportation to foreign lands, often in tiny hidden compartments and overcrowded containers (Beauchamp, 744). It is rather difficult for them to survive such a terrific trip. If they survive, their existence will then continue in sterile, lonely, uncomfortable and unnatural enclosures. Often, they are locked in captivity in an environment that is totally unsuitable due to their needs. While shooting the wild animals, traders destroy their habitats and kill their parents. Most captive wild animals live neglected lives, deprived of social contact with their species.

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In conclusion, it should be stated that keeping wild exotic animals as pets is not just dangerous and expensive, but also very cruel. Wild animals always remain wild; they cannot be tamed. Humans have been masters of other species for so long that they just do not question whether they have the right to keep them captive. This issue concerns not only the legal side of this problem, but also its moral aspect. People must understand that taming wild animals does not mean becoming their closest friends, but depriving them of their home, family, habits, and life in the natural environment. In most cases, life with human beings seems to be a real torture for exotic creatures, but human desire to be the owners of unusual animals and get noticed from the crowd makes them blind and careless. If animals could speak, they would definitely communicate people their dissatisfaction. They try to show it through their behavior, but humans just do not notice it. For them, exotic animals are just toys. People should stop destroying the planet by their irresponsible behavior. Keeping wild animals at home does not only impact the lives of the fauna representatives, but also upsets the natural balance of the planet. Thus, it should be limited and prohibited by the law.

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The legal state of pornography

The legal state of pornography has few sides to be observed. On one hand, from the ethical perspective, people have the right to do, produce, and consume everything they want if it does not bring damage to other people or property. Therefore, people have the right to watch pornography if they want to do it. On the other hand, the fully legal status of pornography definitely implies negative consequences to the present and the future society. The technological progress had created the online world, and this invention had already become the main container for all kinds of pornography that opens it to every person, even to people who do not want to look at it ( in the form of an advertisements). In fact, pornography does not have any serious impact on adults who are healthy both mentally and physically, and for this group of people it can be considered as just one form of entertainment. On the other hand, today, such groups of viewers as adolescents and people with mental issues also have access to some pornographic images and videos (especially on the TV therefore the Internet). The abovementioned groups do not have the capability of proper filtering and processing of received information.https://123helpme.me/ Therefore, pornography has a significant impact on them and even may bring mental shift or damage which will result in all kinds of sexual offence, murders, or problems with sexual partners and violent behavior as time goes by (for adolescents) (Romano et al.1).

From this perspective, it should be pointed that pornography can have a legal status, but it obviously should imply few severe and official restrictions. For example, everything that implies pornographic images must be closed for people who have mental health issues or liability to them, and children under the age of 21. Making the pornography illegal may not solve the problem because it would still be on the Internet and, at the moment, it is impossible to delete it completely. Also, by making pornography illegal, every person who takes part in its producing automatically becomes a criminal and, by means of law, must be imprisoned. In such case, people imprisoned due to creating pornography will stand in one row with burglars, murderers, and rapists in the eyes of law, however, making such criminal actions at least slightly equal is not fair. Moreover, with the overcrowded condition of prisons today, this issue need a negative impact on the economy since it will require more financing with money taken from the wallets of taxpayers. In addition to abovementioned problems that may appear together with making the status of pornography illegal, various protests will take place as well. With making it officially illegal, pornographic material will never be completely deleted from the Internet, and what is more, since it would be illegal anyway, it would likely transform into more violent performance (as a form of a protest) because there will be less of legal restricting factors.

How to solve problem of Pornography

The best way to solve the problem of pornography in the modern society is to make its status legal but also set few rules which will induce severe consequences like imprisonment if not follow, which will help to filter the visual information from the media sources (Horvath et al. 31). For example, these rules can dictate that items, which include pornography, cannot be opened on the television therefore the Internet to all kinds of audience. Also, they cannot be broadcasted until 12AM and can be broadcasted only on pay-per-view channels with high prices in order to eliminate children from watching it. Taking into account all mentioned above, it should be stated that making the status of pornography illegal may not solve all moral problems of the modern society but can even create more problems and issues to deal with. The legal status of pornography gives the chance to the government at least to control what can be shown to the audience and what cannot be shown. However, the legal status must be followed by the rules more strict than they are today, for example, today, a lot of videos and pictures are censored with a simple covering of obscene naked parts of the human body with black squares and tend to be opened to all audiences, but it would be wiser not to show it at all.

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Although the Bible does not directly mention that masturbation is wrong, many examples from the text indicate that masturbation is one of the sexual acts that do not glorify God. It also provides different descriptions of the appropriate or inappropriate use of the gift of sex. There is one specific example provided in the Bible to for a better understanding of why God condemns masturbation. Namely, in Genesis (38:8-10), the Bible speaks of Onan, who was instructed by Judah to have sex with his brother’s wife and produce offsprings. However, Onan did not do as instructed; he had sex with his brother’s wife but instead of producing offsprings, he used Coitus Interrupts. Onan was killed because of his reluctance to act as per God’s instructions to produce offspring. The act of Onan are pertaining to masturbation since propagation is not possible; and, as noted above, God’s main intention for sex is procreation. Thus, as evident from the example, sexual acts that do not induce procreation are against God’s will. Thus, it can be concluded that the Bible is against the acts of masturbation since it contravenes the God’s intended purpose of sex.

On the other hand, it should be noted that the Bible strongly condemns that acts of adultery. It is also fact that masturbation is an act that results from lust. According to the Bible, anyone who sees a woman or a man and feels lust has committed adultery. The same indicates that men who practice masturbation commit adultery, which is a grave sin condemned by the Bible. Thus, masturbation can also be described as a heinous act that is only equitable to adultery or any other form of sexual sin (Miller, 2013). According to Galatians (5:22-23), self-control is one of the most important virtues that one should observe. It is notable that masturbation results from the lack of self-control. Since self-control is one of the fruits of the Holy Spirit, it can be deduced that the Holy Spirit does not guide people who conduct masturbation.

Moreover, according to the Bible, anything that does not please God is evil, thus sinful (1 Cor. 10:31). Thus, looking at the issue from the religious perspective and based on the examples from the Bible, it can be stated that exactly what people do should please God. It is also believed that human bodies belong to God. However, from a religious perspective, sinful acts and thoughts make them impure, which alienates people from God. From the point of view of a religious person, if one is aware that the act is not pleasing to God, he should refrain from doing it.

Moreover, masturbation requires sexual fantasies. To phrase it differently, it involves some types of pornography. The Bible condemns pornography at all costs. It is a sinful act to get involved in such activity and practice such thoughts. The Bible teaches that people should not only please God by treating their bodies in the right way but also by pure mind and thoughts. People commit wrongs when evil thoughts dominate their minds. Therefore, if looking from this perspective, by practicing masturbation humans commit sin in the fantasies they create. The same confirms that masturbation is a heinous act and should be avoided at all costs. Moreover, it is evident that even if the Bible does not directly condemn masturbation, it is wrong to practice it, from the religious point of view. Based on the aspects pertaining to this act, it is considered a sin since it is related to some other sinful activities condemned by the Holy Scriptures.

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Psychological Perspective

The topic has been marked by dubious attitude from the psychologists. Various experts and schools of thought provide contradictory views on the issue. Some hold the opinion that masturbation is a harmful act of sexual pleasure that that’s been reported to have adverse effects on healthy relationships (Shelton, 2014). This approach also insists that due to self-stimulation to reach climax, the doer of the act has a psychological anomaly. Such individuals train their brains as well as physiological organs to reach orgasm after a certain trigger of either pressure, mental satisfaction or otherwise (Hertlein, 2009). Another approach maintains that masturbation is a healthy act that can train an individual to hold longer before getting to the climax. The two schools of thought present compelling theories and evidence to support their views.

However, despite the divergent views, psychologists agree on the fact that even infants as they explore their bodies have been known to use the technique to seek self-pleasure. Thus, Sigmund Freud, who is widely known due to his contribution to the field of psychology and childhood psychological formation, provides a view on this issue with his theory of personality development (Shelton, 2014). His psychosexual analysis has received wide support from other psychologists. The theory reflects the true standing of human psychosexual stages. In fact, they contend that masturbation is a universally recognized healthy and so to speak normative human behavior. It is considered that with time, this self-pleasuring technique becomes a better way to seek self-pleasure and reach to peaks of sexual satisfaction (Hertlein, 2009). Sexual counselors have also been known to use the technique to treat patients who suffer from premature ejaculation, in addition they have reported the great success of the treatment.

However, masturbation has also been reported by the American Psychiatric Association to play a role in the development of paraphilia. Paraphilia can be defined as sexually arousing fantasies that if not treated lead to impairment of occupational, social or other human relations areas (Shelton, 2014). If not treated, this human psychosocial behavior can induce serious social problems such as pedophilia, that will be engaging in a sexual act with a child. Another deviation pertaining to the negative psychological consequences of masturbation is frotteurism. It involves rubbing against and finding pleasure in a non-consenting individual and, in most cases, a stranger (Hertlein, 2009). Exhibitionism involves exposing someone’s genitalia to strangers and, finally, masturbation. Transvestic fetishism is finding sexual arousal and pleasure in cross-dressing. While these are serious social problems, they have a psychological origin and can only be developed and maintained through coaching and counseling the individuals on how to engage in masturbation. Traditionally, this group of sexually impaired individuals has been ignored in psychology and sex therapy sessions due to the difficulties in identifying such persons. The issue is aggravated by the fact that self-reporting is a rare thing and comes with guilt, shame and even negative interpersonal relations with those close to them (Shelton, 2014). Also, it raises an ethical question of creating those. However, it should be also noted that, when an individual comes out or is known to suffer from the psychological disorder, masturbation are successfully applied to treat their shaming conditions (Hertlein, 2009). For example, the more an individual masturbates to a paraphilic fantasy, the further he or she transfers the anomaly to the core of their brain. It causes the risk of almost permanent impairment when it comes to normal sexual functioning with another person (Hertlein, 2009). The actual problem lies in the fact that once this fantasy has been deeply engraved in the brain, it is almost impossible to erase it successfully.

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At the same time, sex therapists agree with psychologists on the fact that masturbation can be used to strengthen sexual glands, notably the sphincter muscle that is widely recognized for the role it plays in sexual climax technique (Shelton, 2014). The muscle contractions play a pivotal role, especially in males. If well-trained through masturbation, and psychologists agree, it also trains the brain how long to last before the climax. When trained, the technique can help to improve sex experience with a partner. To phrase it differently, masturbation can be used as a means of treating and addressing premature ejaculation.

From the other side, another school of that holds the view that masturbation plays a negative role in the development of an individual and especially males. The experts state that it affects the physical development of a person since some part of the male semen is absorbed by the body to aid in the development of a young male (Shelton, 2014) and plays a vital role in the individual’s physical strength. With repeated masturbation, the rate of semen absorption is reduced and in the place of contributing to the strength of the sexual member, it forms a weak, thin organ. Consequently, when an individual becomes aware of his predicament, it becomes a basis for the development of personality problems such as weak personality, strength reduction and a decrease in desire to engage in sexual intercourse (Shelton, 2014). As a result, such a person becomes shy and unconfident. Thus, one faces difficulties in maintaining a healthy relationship and engaging in healthy intercourse with their partners (Shelton, 2014).

Therefore, the topic has a dubious psychological approach, and each of the controversial positions provides strong arguments in support of their theories. At this point, it is difficult to determine an uniform position of the psychological discipline on the issue as it is regarded both as a positive and negative occurrence and has merits and demerits.

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Personal Stand

From my experience, I have met people who have been practicing masturbation. Although they found it enjoyable when they started, they later understood that it was a bad habit, and, moreover, it was addictive. Some of them have tried to stop doing it since they have understood the problem of becoming addictive. However, I think that this addiction are curbed only after the realization of a wide range of consequences related. From the personal point of view, I feel that masturbation is very wrong. It has adverse psychological impacts and, at some moment, an individual may even lose attraction to the opposing sex due to constantly practiced self-satisfaction. Also, the practice of masturbation can cause other deviations and affect sub-consciousness. Moreover, masturbation is against the God’s teaching. I perceive it as a sin that affects the body therefore the mind. It is against the God’s purpose of creating man and woman to replicate. Those who are already addicted need spiritual intervention as well as psychological counseling.

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Relation Between Mythology and Rituals

Lang states this one of the main theoretic issues to be investigated is the relation of a myth and a ritual (23-24). More generally, it is a problem of the connection between mythology and religion. The myth often explains the religious ceremony. The latter one reproduces the fiction itself. This conversation of two notions has caused a controversy on what is prior, i.e. a myth or a ritual. The majority of scientists tend to consider that the ceremony is the primary one. However, they do not deny a possibility of the opposing situation. The basis for the ancient religions was the participation in different ceremonies that were obligatory for all the members of a tribe. In many religions, the mythological content is secondary and even not necessary. For example, in Ancient Greece, the mythology did not form the basis of worshipping. It was unnecessary to believe in myths.

The system of rituals allows transferring the cultural values from one generation to another. It forms an idea about the general order of the human life. With the help of religious ceremonies, people are able to communicate using symbols. Due to the human psychology, it is necessary for an individual to see the outer attributes. The ritual activity relieves the transmission from the external perception to internal feelings. Symbols help to understand the nature of the world by placing the negative experience into the limits of the universe creation. There it receives the explanation and obtains an ability to relieve the negative emotions. Thus, the bad experience is observed in an alternate manner; it may be explained and justified. Religious ceremonies are stereotypical. As soon as the first one of them is performed all the following ones become foreseeable and help to relieve the feeling of fear. The negotiation of uncertainty exempts negative feelings, infuses a person with confidence, and, thus, anticipates the successful solution of personal problems.

Types of Rituals

The British cultural anthropologist Turner considers that “a ritual is a stereotyped sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and designed to influence preternatural entities or forces on behalf of the actors’ goals and interests” (105). Even in the event rituals are carried out randomly, each of them takes place under the influence of certain circumstances.

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The anthropologist divides ceremonies into the following groups:

  • Seasonal rituals that are devoted to the moment of the climate cycle changes or the beginning of such an activity as sowing or harvest gathering;
  • Ceremonies that depend on the circumstances caused by critical periods in the life of a separate person or the society in general (birth, maturity, marriage, death, etc.);
  • Rituals of disasters that are used to appease or banish the spirits cause diseases, failures, and injuries;
  • Other ceremonies that include divinations, dedication to priests, religious associations or secret societies, and those ones that accompany sacrifices to gods or the spirits of ancestors (Turner 105).

Sacral Origin of Rituals

According to Eliade, any ritual has its sacral model . The gods, cultural heroes or mythic ancestors put the beginning to all cults. The primitive people considered these actions to be sacral as they had been carried out by a god, a hero or an ancestor (Eliade 12-16). In Egypt, the priests based the cult on the actions of Tot, who created the Universe with the power of his word. According to the Iranian tradition, the religious ceremonies were established by Ormazd to commemorate the act of the Universe Creation that had lasted for one year. At the end of every period, he had rested for five days. Thus, it caused the establishment of main holidays. The person only repeats the Act of Creation. During one year, his/her religious calendar reflects all the cosmogonic phases (Eliade 12-16).

Eliade states that the sacral year continuously repeats the Act of Creation (17). A person becomes a coeval of cosmogony once the ritual transfers him/her to the initial epoch. Any ceremony is carried out at the sacral time when it was first carried out by a god, a hero or an ancestor. Except that, it is carried out at a sacral space that differs from the room of the ordinary world. It is important to sanctify a plot of land by moving it to the center. As a result of this action, the sanctified space corresponds to the Center regarding the Universe as well as the time is related to the mythic time of the beginning (Eliade 17-21). This Center of the World may be a Sacral Mountain where the Sky meets the Earth, any temple or a palace, a sacral town or a royal residence. The temple is the most sacral place. It has its divine prototype. At the Sinai Mountain, Jehovah gave to Moisey an example of the temple he had to construct (Eliade 17-21). Cities also have a divine prototype. The archetypes of all the Babylonian cities are located in constellations. Sippar has its idea in the constellation of Cancer, Nineveh – in the Ursa Major, Assur – in the star of Arcturus (Eliade 17-21). Thus, the surrounding world has its divine archetypes understood as a plan, a form or a twin that exists on a higher cosmic level.

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However, not everything in this world corresponds to these prototypes. For example, desserts are pertaining to another mythological model. They assimilate with the chaos that preceded the Act of Creation. Before possessing such a territory, people have to carry out a ritual that repeats the Creation or construction of sacral space. For example, in Veda ritual of the territory take-over, the construction of Agni credence provides the connection with the divine world. Space becomes sacral (Eliade 21-27).

Eliade states that all the constructive and productive activities are predicated on cosmogony (17). At certain districts of Asia, a village is based at the perpendicular intersection of two roads that mean the four sides regarding the Universe. The division of the rural area into four sectors corresponds to the division regarding the Universe into four horizons. The structure of the altar is similar to the cosmic space (Eliade 17-21). This occurrence are found in different cultural contexts where the same scenario is repeated. Like an altar or a settlement, a house is sanctified by ritual actions. The dwelling is a Universe created by a person. It imitates the creation of gods, i.e. the cosmogony. Any construction of a new house repeats the creation regarding the Universe (Eliade 17-21).

This new Year reflected the reproduction of the Act of Creation that included the restoration of the primary time (Eliade 51-62). Thus, there were different acts of refinement and exorcism carried out. All the sins of the previous year were eliminated and physically destroyed. When taking part in the destruction therefore the creation of the World, a human being was created again as well. With every New Year, the in-patient became more free and clear because he/she was indeed liberated from the burden of sins and mistakes. Symbolically, the person was becoming the coeval of cosmogony. The ritual reproduction of the mythic time is a basis of all sacral calendars. A holiday is a reconstruction of a mythic event at the present time (Eliade 51-62).

The marriage observances also have a sacral model. Betrothal reproduces the divine union, i.e. such one between the Earth and the Sky. In Greece, the marriage rituals imitate the example of Zeus, who secretly had united with Gera. Demeter united with Iasion at the beginning of spring (Eliade 21-27). Thus, it became the symbol of the soil fertility. Eliade states that the mythic time contains some examples for every type of activity (21-27). The time and ritual of mythology include the explanation and justification of existing rules and norms.

A religious person reproduces the cosmogonic actions not only when he/she creates something, but also when it is necessary to save the harvest, win a war or perform a navy expedition. However, a ritual plays the most important role in medicine when its aim is the regeneration of the human being (Eliade 17-21). The ceremony returns an individual to the time of the Beginning with the goal to allow him/her to begin a new life, be born again, and be healed (Eliade 17-21).

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Psychological Relief of Religious Rituals

According to Rappaport, the ritual is a apparatus that relieves the perception of new issues (103). Every stage of the person’s life is followed closely by the ceremony that aims to provide the transition from one condition to another. With its help the one can resolve conflictual situations. The ceremony helps to eliminate a crisis (Rappaport 103). However, if it is inevitable, it establishes the highest personal values from the social point of view performing its vital function. The ceremony prepares the in-patient for a new period of development. The religious ritual is a psychologic defense from the difficulties of life therefore the sufferings. It provides the one with the support of representatives of the certain religious group. The members regarding the ceremony feel that it is a border that divides them from another life. This transmission is followed closely by the feeling of celebration and degeneration.

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In a recent study conducted to find out the most optimistic people in the world, most Americans equate wealth with success. They believe that the more money you have, the more successful you become in life. Having money is truly a fulfilling experience. Many people believe that having lots of money provides one with a status symbol and brings freedom, power and many material things in life. There are numerous examples of men who have been regarded as wealthy and successful as a result of having serious cash such as Larry Ellison, Mark Zuckerberg, Warren Buffet, Vladimir Lisin, and Paul Allen among others. However, on the contrary, most of these men have been documented to lead miserable lives because the power and affluence are not the genuine recipes for success.

The pursuit for money is like a “mirage” or like chasing the wind. Many people who crave for success spent most of their active life making money and forget the essential things in life; happiness and health.

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